African Organizations and Communities

Egypt relationship with the African Union, the regional economic communities, and the African Strategic Partnerships

  • Seeking to restore the Egyptian role in Africa, and in the light of the formation of economic communities the world actually witnesses, as well as Egypt's desire to play a vital role in the African continent's security and stability, Egypt was one of the founders of the Organization of African Unity which later turned into the African Union. Egypt has also contributed to establishing the COMESA and the Community of Sahel- Saharan States, besides adopting the NEPAD, as following:


First: Egypt's relationship with the Organization of African Unity / the African Union:​​

  1. Egypt is one of the founding countries of the Organization of African Unity in 1963, as it struggled for the liberation and independence of African countries from the yoke of colonialism and continued to play this role since the fifties until the nineties of the last century. The African Union was formally established in July 2002; Egypt was one of the first countries that signed and ratified the African Union's Constitutive Act. 

  2. Egypt assumed the presidency of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 1964, 1989 and 1993; it also hosted the 11th Ordinary Session of the AU Summit in Sharm el-Sheikh in June / July 2008. 

  3. The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, assumed the position of coordinator of the CAHOSCC (Committee of African Heads of State and Government on Climate Change) during the African Union Summit in January 2015 for two years until end 2016, concurrently with Egypt's presidency of AMCEN (The African Ministerial Conference on the Environment) for 2014 and 2016. 

  4. During the 32nd NEPAD Steering Committee meeting in Addis Ababa in January 2015, the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt Abdel Fattah al-Sisi was reelected to the post of Vice-Chairman of the Steering Committee for a second, and final, two-year mandate ending in 2017. 

  5. Dr. Elham Mahmoud (Mrs.) (Egypt) occupies the position of AU Commissioner for Infrastructure and Energy since she was elected to the position in January 2008, and was re-nominated to the post during the Commission's elections in July 2012 for the mandate 2012-2016.  Today Dr. Amani Abu Zeid occupies the position of  AU Commissioner for Infrastructure and Energy

  6. ​Egypt has ratified 21 agreements in the framework of the African Union, the latest of which was the African Youth Charter in 1/4/2015, in addition to the Statute of the African Union Commission on International Law which came into force immediately after its approval from the Addis Ababa Summit in February 2009 (does not require ratification). Egypt also signed seven agreements of the African Union without ratification. 

  7. In the wake of the January 25 Revolution, 2011, the President of the African Union Commission held a visit to Egypt on March 26 and 27, 2011, as well as the visit by a delegation of the African Union Panel of the Wise during the period June 3 to 6, 2011 to follow up the Egyptian democratic transition experience and provide the necessary support, as they submitted their two reports to the AU Summit in Malabo June/July 2011, which was acquainted with the positive developments of the situation in Egypt, and asked the Commission to provide the necessary institutional support to Egypt in this regard. 

  8. Ahead of the June 30 Revolution, 2013, the AU Peace and Security Council issued a statement on its session no. 384 dated July 5, 2013, that included the suspension of Egypt's participation in the activities of the AU until the restoration of constitutional order. In the wake of the completion of the electoral merits by the election of the President of the Republic, the Peace and Security Council issued on June 17, 2014 a decision restoring Egypt to full membership of the Union and to resume its participation in the activities of the African Union. 

  9. The African Union participated in monitoring the Egyptian presidential elections in May 2014 with a delegation headed by Mr. Mohamed Lemine Ould Guig, former Prime Minister of Mauritania; the African Union also participated in the inauguration ceremony of President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi on June 8, 2014, as the African Union Commission was represented at the inauguration by Dr. Aisha L. Abdullahi Commissioner for political Affairs of the Union. 

  10. Egypt's contribution in the African Union budget: Egypt bears 12% of the total contributions of the Member States in the African Union budget, as being one of the five major contributors to the African Union budget (Angola, South Africa, Algeria, and Nigeria). 
  11. Participation of Egypt's President in African Union Summit, January 2017.
  12. Participation of Ibrahim Mehleb, Egypt's president's advisor in African Union Summit, July 2017.
  13. Minister Sameh Shoukry was the head of the Egypt's delegation at the African Union-European Union summit which was held in Abidjan in November 2017.
  14. Egypt and the African Union organs and institutions: -

    • The AU Peace and Security Council: Egypt signed the Protocol Relating to the Establishment of the Council in March 2004; it submitted the Protocol's ratification instrument in March 2005, and was elected as a member of the Council for the North African Region for two years starting from March 2006 to March 2008, as, during this mandate, Egypt assumed the Council's presidency in December 2006 and in March 2008, (Egypt launched during its presidency in December 2006, the Egyptian initiative to create a consultation mechanism between the AU Peace and Security Council and the UN Security Council). Egypt was also elected to the Council's membership for a two-year mandate starting from March 2012 until March 2014.
    •  New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD): Egypt is one of the five founding members of NEPAD, with South Africa, Senegal, Algeria and Nigeria.
    • The African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child: During the African Union Summit in May 2015 Dr. Azza Ashmawy, the former Secretary General of the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood in Egypt, was elected to the Committee's membership for the term of office July 2013 to July 2018.
    • The African Union Commission on International Law: the Egyptian Judge, Counselor Mohamed Barakat, won the elections of the AU Commission on International Law, which took place on the sidelines of the AU Summit held in Addis Ababa in January 2015.
    • The Economic, Social, and Cultural Council: both the Egyptian Red Crescent Society and the Egyptian Business Women Association won the Council membership elections. 
    • Ambassador Dr. Namira Negm has been appointed as African Union Legal Advisor.
  15. Egypt contribution in peacekeeping operations in Africa: -

    • In the framework of the Egyptian role in support for security and stability within the continent, Egypt participates in 8 out of 9 United Nations peacekeeping missions at the level of the African continent:
    • The United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA).
    • The United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI).
    • The United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL).
    • The United Nations Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO).
    • The African Union/UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID).
    • The United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS).
    • Egypt cooperates with the ACIRC African Capacity for Immediate Response to Crises", as its representatives were dispatched to work at the cell. 

  16. The African Union Meetings and activities hosted by Egypt: -

    • The 11th African Summit (Sharm el-Sheikh - June 23 to July 1, 2008).
    • The 42nd session of the 2009 meetings of the Economic Committee of the African Ministers of Finance and Planning (Sharm el-Sheikh June 2 to 7, 2009).
    • The informal meeting of African Ministers of Trade (Cairo, October 28 and 29, 2009) to prepare for the Seventh Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization.
    • The second meeting of the General Assembly of the African Union Economic, Social and Cultural Council (Cairo, February 26 - March 1, 2015).
    • The 15th session of the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (Cairo, March 4 to 6, 2015).
    • The 11th session of the African Commission on International Law (Cairo October 5 to 16, 2015), the first meeting between the African Commission on International Law and the Office of the Legal Counsel - AU Commission (Cairo, October 10, 2015), and the Fourth Forum of the African Commission on International Law (Cairo on October 19 and 20, 2015). 

  17. Initiatives set forward by Egypt in the framework of the African Union:

    • A memorandum of understanding was signed between the Egyptian Fund for Technical Cooperation with Africa (currently the Egyptian Agency of Partnership for Development) and the African Union Commission, aiming to build capacities of the Commissions' staff via dispatching Egyptian experts to provide training at the Commission's headquarters, this being a recognition to Egypt's potential in the African capacity-building.
    • Egypt suggested an initiative to establish the African Union Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Development Center, stemming from its belief in the importance of supporting stability and rebuilding the African countries post-conflict capacities, as well as the importance of bridging the gap in the structure of the African peace and security system through establishing a continental mechanism to address the situation of countries emerging from conflicts and consolidate peace in them.
    • During the African Union Summit held in Addis Ababa in January 2015, Egypt submitted a proposal to establish a unit for mediation and conflict prevention within the Commission's structure, thus adding to the Union's endeavors in this regard, with the aim of strengthening the African mediation capabilities through establishing the unit and adding to the African Union efforts, leading to the creation of a real African Union capacity in the field of mediation similar to the Mediation Support Unit of the United Nations Department of Political Affairs. The Summit approved the Egyptian proposal which is currently being coordinated with the African Union Commission.
    • Egypt also expressed eagerness during the Addis Ababa Summit in January 2015 to host the headquarters of the African Union Space Agency; the Summit was acquainted with the Egyptian proposal.
  18. African institutions hosted by Egypt, including the African Union institutions: -

    • The African Union Permanent Delegation to the League of Arab States in Cairo.
    • The Union of African Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Agriculture, and Professions
    • The Confederation of African Football.
    • The COMESA Regional Investment Agency.
    • The Union of African Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Agriculture, and Professions
    • The African Export-Import Bank.
    • The field office of the African Development Bank and the African Development Fund.
    • The African Federation of Construction Contractors' Associations.
    • The African rehabilitation Institute.
    • The Office of the Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa.
    • The Afro-Asian Peoples' Solidarity Organization.

    Second: Egypt and the African regional economic communities and strategic partnerships:

    • Egypt is a member of two African regional economic communities, the COMESA and the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, of a total of eight formal regional communities throughout Africa.
    • Lately, an intensified diplomatic activity was witnessed by Egypt in terms of activating its role in those communities and seeking to support and promote the goals they advocate, the most significant of which is Egypt hosting of the three regional economic communities Summit (COMESA-SADC-EAC) in Sharm El-Sheikh in June 2015, with the participation of the heads of States and governments of 26 African countries representing a market with more than 58% of the total GDP which amounts to 1.3 trillion USD, and 57% of Africa's total population.
    • One of the major results of the Sharm el-Sheikh Summit was the signing of the Tripartite Free Trade Area Agreement "the Sharm el-Sheikh Agreement" by the Heads of States and Governments of the three communities members, which would enhance intra-trade, increase investment flows, open additional markets, promote competitiveness, and support infrastructure development so that the area could lead the economic and trade integration process at the level of the African continent.

    1. Egypt and COMESA:

    • The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) was established in November 1993, succeeding the Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa (PTA), which was established in December 1981.
    • The Treaty establishing the COMESA was signed in December 8, 1994, by 22 African countries, and December 8, 2008 was scheduled for the launch of the Customs Union.
    • A number of countries joined the COMESA since its inception, notably Egypt and Libya; a number of countries also withdrew from its membership, including: Tanzania, Namibia, Mozambique, Somalia, the Kingdom of Lesotho, and Angola (froze its membership). Thus COMESA currently include as members 19 countries, namely: Egypt, Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudan, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Libya.
    • COMESA is the first regional economic community Egypt acceded to, as it joined it in 1998.
    • The latest period witnessed a pioneering and leading role by Egypt in order to achieve the objectives and principles adopted by the community, as Egypt has become one of the leading countries on the community's inter-trade list; Egypt also owns growing investments in a number of COMESA countries. In this regard, we should refer to the successful economic and investment conference held in Sharm el-Sheikh in March 2015 to support the Egyptian economy, as Egypt addressed invitations to a number of COMESA countries to participate in this event in order to take advantage of their attendance in highlighting the interconnected COMESA economies.

    2. Egypt and the Community of Sahel- Saharan States: -

    • Egypt enjoys full membership of the Community of Sahel-Saharan States since 2001, and it ratified the treaty establishing the Community in 2006.
    • Egypt actively participated with a high-level delegation chaired by the Egyptian Prime Minister at the CEN-SAD extraordinary Summit in N'Djamena in February 2013; Egypt also participated at the recent CEN-SAD ministerial meeting in Khartoum in March 2014, the first ministerial meeting following the signing of the CEN-SAD revised treaty in the N'djamena Summit in February 2013.
    • Despite the problems and obstacles the Community witnesses, Egypt and a number of CEN-SAD member States are performing a prominent role seeking to face such problems and obstacles and work to reactivate its role, especially regarding the security and political aspects, and countering the growing terrorism phenomenon in the CEN-SAD territories. Finally, the most important actions carried out by Egypt in order to reactivate the role of the CEN-SAD, is convening the Community's member States defense ministers in Cairo, tentatively scheduled in early 2016.

    3. Egypt's policy towards the ECOWAS:

    • The Community includes as members 15 countries from the West African region; the revised Treaty of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), was signed in July 1993 and focused mainly on agricultural and industrial development, the liberalization of intra-regional trade, and the free movement of production factors in order to establish a free trade area and a single currency.
    • Egypt enjoys observer member status at ECOWAS. The Egyptian Ambassador to Nigeria also presents his credentials to ECOWAS Secretary General in Abuja.

    4. Egypt's policy towards the Economic Community of Central African States:

    • The Community plays an important role in peacekeeping operations in the countries of the region, in addition to strengthening cooperation in economic and trade fields, Egypt was adopted as a friendly country at the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS-CEEAC) in January 16, 2014, which allows it to attend the Community's meetings periodically, and follow up the latest developments in the Central African region.

    5. Egypt and the Central African Economic and Monetary Community:

    • The Community includes as members six countries from the Central African region intended to enter through the Egyptian export promotion strategy to cover the entire African continent.
    • Egypt signed a framework agreement to conclude a free trade area between Egypt and the CEMAC; Egypt also enjoys growing trade bilateral relations with the different Member States of CEMAC.

    6. Egypt and the African Strategic partnerships:

    • Egypt is still playing a leading role in the framework of these partnerships, especially the active of which, and participating positively and effectively in these strategic partnerships' different meetings and summits.
    • In this context, it is important to recall that Egypt assumed the co-presidency of the strategic partnership between China and Africa for 6 consecutive years, which has not been achieved and is difficult to be achieved with any of the other African countries. Egypt also led the partnership between Africa and the European Union, and hosted its first Summit in 2000 and laid the foundations for future cooperation between the two parties through the Cairo Declaration and Action Plan.
    • It is worth noting that Egypt hosted, in the framework of its support for strategic partnerships between Africa and the outside world, The Fourth Ministerial Conference of the China-Africa Cooperation Forum (Sharm El Sheikh November 6 to 9, 2009), the Africa Arab Ministerial Conference on Agriculture (February 2010), and the 14th Meeting of Arab-African Cooperation Committee of 24 (March 4, 2010).

    Egypt and the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD)​​

    First: background and goals:​​

    1. NEPAD is an African vision for a comprehensive strategy aimed to achieve economic and social development in the continent, it was drafted and adopted by the heads of States of five countries: Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria, South Africa and Senegal, and was approved by the Organization of African Unity in Lusaka in July 2001.
    2. NEPAD was integrated into the AU organs under the decision of the African Union Summit in Addis Ababa in February 2010 as a technical body affiliated to the African Union, in order to facilitate, coordinate and mobilize resources for the implementation of the priority continental and regional programs and projects.
    3. The main objectives of the initiative include:
    • Poverty eradication.
    • Achieving sustainable development.
    • Redress the marginalization of the African continent.
    •  Women's Empowerment.
    • The integration of the African economy with the global economy.
    4. The principles of NEPAD consist in emphasizing that continental development belongs to Africa, relying on its own resources, and the partnership between the African peoples, achieving regional and continental integration, developing competitiveness of the African continent's countries, and concluding partnerships with developed countries in order to reduce the gap between them and Africa.

    Second: NEPAD governance mechanisms:​​

    1. Heads of State and Government Orientation Committee (HSGOC):

      1.  The HSGOC is the political forum commissioned by the African Union Conference to follow up the implementation of the Initiative's objectives. It includes the heads​ of States of the Initiative's five countries (Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria, South Africa and Senegal), along with the heads of States of 15 other countries, representing the continent's five geographical regions, as per four countries from each region, as elections for African countries are regularly held to join the committee for two years, based on the regional consultations within the Union.
      2. The Committee is in charge of promoting for the Initiative, gaining international support for it, identifying the policies and priorities of its action program and following -up its implementation, and submitting regular reports on its work to the African Union Summit.
      3. The Committee holds its regular sessions on the sidelines of the AU Summit, with potential other sessions at the invitation of a Member State.
      4. Egypt hosted the NEPAD HSGOC 13th session in Sharm el-Sheikh in April 2005, as well as the NEPAD HSGOC 19th session in Sharm el-Sheikh in July 2008 on the sidelines of the AU Summit.
      5. ​The President of Senegal Macky Sall was re-elected as the chairman of the NEPAD HSGOC, and the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt Abdel Fattah al-Sisi and the President of Algeria Abdelaziz Bouteflika were elected as two Deputy Chairman of the Committee in January 2015 for two years.

    ​2. The Steering Committee:

    1. It is formed of the representatives of the heads of States members of the steering committee, and assumes the preparation of detailed plans for the action program and proceed for the implementation of the Initiative, as well as its role in managing dialogue with development partners, at the level of personal representatives, to gain support by the Group of Eight and developed countries for African efforts to achieve development in the continent.


    2. The working group of the five founding countries of NEPAD:

      • ​The five founding countries of NEPAD (Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria, South Africa, and Senegal) agreed on the sidelines of the NEPAD Steering Committee Summit, held in January 2012, to hold regular meetings for a working group composed of the five founding countries of NEPAD, before the meetings of the NEPAD Steering Committee, in order to maintain the NEPAD path and provide the necessary support for the Initiative so as to serve the interests of the continent as a whole, as Egypt suggested the need to formulate clear procedural rules that govern the relationship between the working group of the NEPAD five founding countries, the Steering Committee, the NEPAD Agency, and the African Union Commission.
    3. The Working Group of NEPAD Steering Committee:
      • The group was established based on the decision of the 43rd session of the NEPAD Steering Committee in Addis Ababa in January 2012. Its competencies include the strategic monitoring of the NEPAD planning and coordinating Agency in preparing development programs and projects, ensuring the programs are compatible with the NEPAD development goals, supporting the Steering Committee in supervising the planning and coordinating Agency, examining means to mobilize resources to implement programs, and communicating with the African governments and economic communities to provide political and financial support for NEPAD activities.
      • The group held its first meeting in Dakar in November 2013 as it examined the strategic plan for the NEPAD planning and coordinating Agency 2014-2017, and evaluated the Africa Partnership Forum (APF). It also held its second meeting in Midrand in March 2014, where it was agreed to establish a comprehensive mechanism involving all African partnerships under one umbrella to replace the APF. Egypt did not participate in these two meetings due to the suspension of Egypt's participation in the activities of the African Union.
      • The third meeting of the Working Group was held in Johannesburg on December 11, 2014, with Egypt's participation, as they discussed the financial status of the NEPAD planning and coordinating Agency, the results of the Dakar Summit to finance infrastructure, the Service Delivery Mechanism, and the emergence of the Africa Global Partnership Platform. The fourth meeting was scheduled to be held in Midrand on March 24, 2015.

      3. NEPAD Planning & Coordinating Agency (NPCA):

    a. The NEPAD planning and coordinating Agency coordinates the implementation of regional and continental priority projects, contributes to boost establishing companies for development, and participates in mobilizing resources and knowledge management, in the framework of NEPAD objectives which consist in the five basic themes as well as cross cutting themes (Gender, capacity development, the participation of the private sector, and information technology).
    b. The Agency is funded through the African Union budget (since the date of NEPAD integration into the AU organs according to the decision of the African Union Summit (Assembly / AU / Dec.283/XIV) in Addis Ababa in February 2010, as we pay our contributions through our annual share in the African Union budget which amounts to 13.271% of the EU budget for 2014).
    c. Mr. Ibrahim Mayaki (Niger) is the Executive Director of the NEPAD planning and coordinating Agency since January 2009.

    Third: The NEPAD work areas:

    a. Agriculture and Food Security:

    • ​African heads of States announced through the Maputo Declaration (African Union Summit in July 2003) their intention to apply the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP), which aims to allocate 10% of the African countries budget for the development of the agricultural sector. The NEPAD planning and coordinating Agency seeks to implement the program through four main pillars, namely, sustainable water management, developing private sector, rural infrastructure, and market access, increasing the food supply to combat hunger, and scientific research and spreading agricultural technology.
      NEPAD aims to coordinate between the concerned continental and regional authorities to face problems caused by climate change in the framework of three main sectors: environment, energy and water, through conferences on participation in climate change in the continent, supporting the work of climate change scientists in Africa, supporting African environment ministerial conferences, and providing technical support to promote African stances.
    • NEPAD seeks achieving African economic integration through infrastructure development, by mobilizing political will, matching regulatory frameworks, seeking regional cooperation, and encouraging companies from the public and private sector, international institutions, and Regional Economic Communities RECs, and building structures to follow-up the infrastructure sector development, and exchanging information at the regional level.
    • Action programs in the infrastructure development sector include:
    • Program for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA), launched by the African Union, the NEPAD, the African Development Bank (ADB), and the United Nations Economic Committee for Africa (UNECA) on the sidelines of the AU Summit in Kampala in July 2010. In this context, the PIDA priority action plan was determined, comprising 51 projects in the sectors of transport, energy, telecommunications, water, (selected in consultation between the African Development Bank and the regional economic communities).
    • The Presidential Infrastructure Championship Initiative (PICI) which was launched by the African Union and the NEPAD according to the decision of the 16th African Union Summit No. XVI in Addis Ababa in January 2011 (Assembly / AU / Dec.348), as the AU Summit adopted by this decision the recommendations of the Heads of State and Government Orientation Committee (HSGOC) on priority projects to be implemented in the five geographical regions of Africa, and the President of South Africa Mr. Jacob Zuma assumes the Initiative's presidency.
    • Egypt sponsors the water resources and river and land transport sectors in the framework of the Initiative, President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi adopts in this framework the navigational line project between Lake Victoria and the Mediterranean.

    d. Human Resource Development:

    • Work in this field takes place in the framework of fighting poverty in the continent and includes the areas of education, health, science and technology, through seeking to strengthen the capacity of the African citizen to gain access to drugs and vaccines, and improve education in the continent to increase opportunities of getting a job, as NEPAD seeks to strengthen relevant networks such as the African Mathematical Institutes Network and "Education for All in Africa" (EFA) program.

    e. Economic governance and partnerships:

    • NEPAD aims within this framework to strengthen the capacity of the members States in corporate governance and economic governance, and enhance their capacity in managing development projects and obtain the necessary financing, in addition to promoting for a framework that encourages economic business, as well as the empowerment of African migrants and provide them the opportunity to participate in the continent's development. Such objectives conform with the objectives of the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) which focuses on four basic areas: democracy and political governance, management and economic governance, corporate governance, and socio-economic development.

    f. Crosscutting Themes:

    •  Besides the five basic themes on which the NEPAD focuses, the Initiative also works on crosscutting themes including gender, capacity development, the participation of the private sector, and information technology.
    • Concerning gender and women's empowerment, the NEPAD and the Spanish government signed a memorandum of understanding in 2007 to establish the NEPAD Spanish Fund, which aims to empower women economically through supporting small and medium enterprises, developing their economic potential, creating jobs, raising awareness about violence against women, supporting girls' education, providing health services, developing women's role in leadership, and increasing their role in natural resource management. 

    Fourth: The most important Egyptian activities in the ​​​​​framework of the NEPAD:

    • In the framework of the distribution of tasks between the five founding countries of the Initiative, Egypt assumed the responsibility of the agriculture and the trade and market access files, and actually proceeding to join The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) through a t​imetable proposed by the NEPAD Agency and approved by the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture.
    • Egypt, as a member of the Presidential Infrastructure Champion Initiative (PICI), assumes the responsibility of water and river resources management and land and rail transport projects. The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt adopts in this context the navigational line project between Lake Victoria and the Mediterranean. Egypt has also completed paving the 110 kilometers long Toshka-Arkin road linking Egypt and Sudan at a cost of 190 million EGP, in the framework of the Cairo- Cape Town Highway project which is handled by South Africa.​