Egyptian Sudanese Relations ​​


The geographical proximity, historical itineraries and people's movements contribute to establish distinguished ties between Egypt and Sudan and strong relations between the two brotherly peoples.

The Egyptian Sudanese borders extend approximately 1273 km. Sudan represents the south strategic depth to Egypt, so Sudan's security and stability are integral part of the Egyptian national security. From here the importance of Egypt's policy towards Sudan is highlighted to maintain its unity, stability and consolidation, on one part and to strengthen the relations of integration between the two sides on the other part. The Egyptian foreign policy is keen on establishing special strong relations of deep understanding with brotherly Sudan and developing Egyptian-Sudanese joint economic relations, in addition to making quantum leaps, in line with the aspirations of the peoples of the Arab and African regions.

Within the framework of pursuing to strengthen ties of brotherhood, the Egyptian - Sudanese relations are characterized by both countries' and senior officials' heedful seeking to develop and strengthen bilateral relations in all fields to the level of the aspirations of the peoples of the Nile Valley, which could be pointed to through the following themes

Developing Bilateral Relations:​

The Egyptian-Sudanese relations are characterized by intimate historical heritage, intimacy and blood bonds exceed the level of bilateral political relations, even though the ruling regimes changed, it is eternal between the peoples of the Nile Valley in Egypt and Sudan. Egypt is always keen to establish relationships support the bonds of cooperation in various fields considering their common goals and self-determination.

The two countries are currently coordinating to hold a joint committee at the level of summit, which will tackle a number of issues of mutual interest and address the means of pushing forward and strengthening bilateral relations. It is expected to sign a number of agreements in various fields of bilateral cooperation.


An Agreement on border crossings between Egypt and Sudan was singed in Khartoum, on 17/4/2014.  The Egyptian Prime Minister and First Vice President of the Republic of Sudan opened Qustul/Occhett crossing officially on 04/30/2015. It represents the most important Egyptian gate overlooking Africa, due to its contribution in making a great leap in trade and investment movement between Egypt on one side and Sudan and the African continent on the other side, through developing the movement of imports and exports of goods, animal wealth and activating the movement of passengers.

90% of Arkeen border crossing has been completed to be opened soon, which gives Egypt strategic importance to penetrate the African market, so that Egypt would become the African gate to the world, as the port represents a regional hub linking the north of the African continent from Alexandria to the far south in the City of Cape Town, South Africa, within the framework of the instructions given by Mr. President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi on strengthening bilateral trade with African countries to achieve economic integration of Africa and make Africa a powerful force on the international arena by 2063. Arkeen port is expected to achieve trade investments between the two countries and economic growth, since there is no water surface in the way of this port.


Egypt supports Sudan in all international fora and also keen to pursue national dialogue and reform paths in this brotherly country, which help directly in achieving the Egyptian national security and strategic interests of the African continent. Egypt has also supported and still supports Sudan in issues and challenges facing it regionally and internationally, starting from crisis of the South, then the Darfur crisis, and at the end the national dialogue, which began its activities upon the invitation of the Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir in 2014, where Egypt supports the Arab and African efforts seeking its success in a framework ensures the unity, stability and security of Sudan, renouncing violence and avoiding tribal and ethnic pride, with focusing on the developmental dimension as a radical solution to most conflicts and struggles in the African continent in general and Sudan in particular.

Egypt participates in the UNAMID, by troops, experts and doctors; Egypt also contributes in the areas of humanitarian assistance, health care and education in the region and other cities and regions of sisterly Sudan.


Egypt contributes through the Egyptian Agency of Partnership for Development EAPD in funding cooperation activities in the field of transferring expertise in a number of areas that Sudan needs, such as monitoring, administrative reform and developing small, medium and micro enterprises, health, sanitation and education. Egypt also contributed through the funding provided by the Agency in preparing the Egyptian section for dialysis in Port Sudan hospital in the form of medical aids in this area.


Within the framework of the Egyptian foreign policy endeavors to maintain water security for the Nile downstream countries, the two downstream countries Egypt and Sudan  has coordinated on signing the Declaration of Principles among Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia in Khartoum in March 2015, which represents an important step to strengthen and build confidence between the two downstream countries and Ethiopia and ensure respecting the interests of all parties, so that Egypt does not compromise whereby its historical rights in the Nile River. Egypt also coordinates with Sudan to reach a comprehensive vision and realistic solutions to deal with the Ethiopian dam Renaissance and ensure the rights of the downstream countries in the framework of the historical agreements signed between the upstream and downstream countries​

Economic and Trade Relations :​

The Egyptian-Sudanese trade relations witnessed a remarkable growth in the recent years, particularly in light of the membership of the two brotherly countries in the major Arab Free Trade Area and COMESA. The Egyptian and Sudanese sides depend on the opening of Qustul / Occhett border crossing to contribute in increasing the volume of trade to reach the anticipated level of the nature of bilateral relations from $ 850 million in 2013 to $ 2 billion annually.

Thus, the volume of joint investments between Egypt and Sudan is also expected to increase as a result of efforts aiming at facilitating the procedures of transport and shipping of goods and services  and preparing good studies and developed legislation to develop the methods of cargo between the two countries, so as to overcome the obstacles and problems facing the movement of trucks and especially in terms of its stay on the Egyptian or Sudanese land.

-The number of Egyptian projects in Sudan during the period 2000 - 2013 was about 229 projects with a capital source amounted to about 10.8 US billion dollars, concentrated in the industrial, agricultural and service sectors.


The Sudanese investments amounted; during the period 2000- 2013 in Egypt about 97 US million dollars represented in 315 invested Sudanese companies concentrated in the industrial, financial, service, agricultural, construction, tourism and communications sectors.

The main Egyptian exports to Sudan is represented in iron, aluminum, plastics, furniture and food commodities, petroleum products, medicines and copper manufactures; the main Egyptian imports from Sudan is represented in sheep, meat, cereals, bean, oilseeds and cotton.​

The Egyptian and Sudanese sides are coordinating for the completion of projects of electrical connection that would enable Egypt and Sudan to exchange electric energy during the different peak times in the two countries.


Contractual framework

 

Agreement Signing date Entry into Force
Agreement for Mutual Exemption of Taxation on Aviation Facilities26 July 19611 January 1954
Air Transport Agreement 25 March 19623 April 1963
Agreement on Trade 20 January  1965January 1965 30
Agreement on Trade, customs and transportation January 1965 30January 1965 30
Agreement to connect a regular maritime line between the High Dam and HalfaJanuary 1965 30January 1965 30
Agreement on the wireless connection by radio waves to operate the telegraph and telephone services30 January 196529 September 1966
Agreement on Media19 November 196719 November 1967
Protocol for the implementation of construction projects31 August 196931 August 1969
Agreement on Economic Integration31 August 19697 June 1970
Protocol to amend the Agreement on Trade and Payment 31 August 196914 April 1970
Agreement on Technical cooperation 31 August 19697 June 1970
Protocol annexed  to the Agreement on Achieving Economic Integration and Technical Cooperation 31 August 196931 August 1969
Protocol for scientific and technical cooperation in the field of animal welfare 6 October 196927 March 1971
Agreement on cultural cooperation 15 November 19692 August 1970
Protocol to the Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation in the Field of Agriculture and the (with annexed mutual book)7 January 19705 August 1970
Agreement to Support cinema Cooperation  29 January 197029 January 1970
Protocol to amend the  Agreement on Trade 17 February 197217 February 1972
Agreement on Tourism16 June 19752 August 1975
Protocol for establishing the Egyptian-Sudanese company for irrigation projects and construction 15 July 197514 February 1977
Convention on the establishment of an Egyptian-Sudanese joint navigation river (the Nile Valley )15 July 19751 January 1978
Protocol for establishing the Egyptian- Sudanese Company for Agricultural Integration 15 July 197515 July 1975
Agreement on Social Insurance 9 April 197821 September 1975
Protocol on Scientific Cooperation  18 November 197518 November 1975
Agreement on Establishing the Sudanese-Egyptian Partnership for  Mining 22 November 197619 December 1977
Protocol to amend the Agreement on Trade and Payment 30/1/196512 January 197730 April 1978
Agreement on Establishing the Joint Fund to finance technical and economic feasibility studies for industrial integration projects 28 May 1977, 20 April 1978
Maritime Convention 28 May 197719 January 1981
Agreement on Health and Medical Cooperation 28 May 197722 October 1977
Convention on Granting Dual Nationality 28 May 197722 December 1977
Agreement on Establishing the Egyptian- Sudanese Investment Company 28 May 19776 July 1977
Agreement on the Settlement of compensation due from the Egyptian interests, which were nationalized in the Republic of Sudan13 November 197730 April 1978
Protocol to amend certain provisions of the Cooperation Agreement 29 June 197810 July 1979
Agreement to amend some provisions of the Convention on Social Insurance25 October 198425 October 1984
Protocol of Trade 1991 14 January 199131 January 1991